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制定5G标准

虽然3G和4G使用寿命很长,并且3G到4G(LTE)转换得到适当的评级,但5G过渡将会更快,即使技术有一个5G是复杂的.5G标准的一些变化包括编码通过5G无线电发送的控制和数据包的新技术。有一个深度免责声明使用编码技术,但过程有效,委员会来到最终标准的可行解决方案。

This is a peek into the process of how these standards came to be.这是对这些标准如何形成的过程的一看。

Radio channel coding is based on mathematical models for encoding the most data into the smallest amount of radio bandwidth while ensuring the delivery of the correct data, even with a potentially noisy radio channel. The design of the data codes is a balance of power consumption, data redundancy, computational needs, and packet size. While control packets continue to remain relatively short in 5G, data packets are increasing in size as data content shifts from text and voice to web data and streaming audio and video. As a result, some 5G codes need to be designed to work better for longer data packets, while others need to be optimized for shorter control codes.无线电信道编码基于数学模型,用于将大多数数据编码成最小量的无线电带宽,同时封装正确数据的传送,即使是可能有噪声的无线电信道。数据代码的设计是功耗的平衡,结果,一些5G数据数据,流数据,语音数据,流数据,音频数据,来自流数据和流数据的视频数据。代码需要设计为更好地处理更长的数据包,而其他代码需要针对更短的控制代码进行优化。

Both the 3G and 4G standards used the same coding schemes. The basic characteristics of those networks were similar — relatively small data packets and a control channel for operations such as call setup and teardown. Both used turbo code for the data channel and convolutional codes for the control channel. But when the various contributors to the 5G specification considered the future, many agreed that there were newer and alternative coding schemes to be considered. With larger packets, faster data speeds, and shorter latencies, the research groups all sought improvements over the venerable turbo codes and convolution codes. 3G和4G标准都使用相同的编码方案。这些网络的基本特征相似 - 相对较小的数据包和用于设置和拆除等操作的控制通道。但是,当5G规范的各种贡献者考虑未来时,许多人认为有更多新的和编码方案需要考虑。随着更大的数据包,更快的数据速度和更短的纬度,研究组所有的优势古老的turbo码和卷积码。

In addition, it is generally recognized that efficient multiplexing of users with highly diverse requirements needs a flexible frame structure. The hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) that was being added also needed some revisions to optimize performance with a flexible frame structure in 5G.同样需要的混合自动重复请求(HARQ)需要一些其他修订以在体外优化框架,人们普遍认为有效地多路复用具有高度多样化要求的用户。

The competing proposals 竞争提案
Because of the nature of the 3GPP standards process, each member company performs its own research, which includes massive simulations, and then submits its findings to the subcommittees. There are separate subcommittees for the control and data channels and each has the power to choose its own coding standard. Member companies have the opportunity to propose a coding standard, then all the submissions are considered and voted on by the members. This process proved a little more controversial in 5G when Huawei proposed a new coding scheme called polar codes for both the control and data channels. 3GPP标准流程具有一定的性质,每个成员公司都会进行自己的研究,包括大规模模拟,然后将结果提交给小组委员会。控制和数据通道有独立的小组委员会,每个小组都有权选择成员进程有机会提交标准,然后所有成员都会被成员考虑并投票。当华为提出一种新的极化代码编码方案时,这个过程在5G中提供了一些。控制和数据通道。

Polar codes were first developed by a Turkish electrical engineer Erdal Arıkan (recipient of the IEEE WRG Baker Award for his contributions to information theory, the Richard W. Hamming Medal, and the Claude E. Shannon Award) and a version of polar codes was adopted by Huawei in its proposals. The main competition was the convolution coding scheme from 3G and 4G.极地代码首先由土耳其电气工程师ErdalArıkan(IEEE WRG贝克奖获得者,因其对信息理论的贡献,Richard W. Hamming奖章和Claude E. Shannon奖)开发,并采用了极地代码版本华为在其提案中,主要竞争对手是3G和4G的卷积编码方案。

For the data channel coding, the major contenders were low-density parity-check codes (LDPC), turbo codes, and polar codes. Despite the push from Huawei and a block of other Chinese vendors, the supporters of LDPC coding (including Qualcomm and others) had a strong case. A version of LDPC was already in use by Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) for data channels and its characteristics and coding strengths were already well known for larger data packets.尽管来自华为和其他中国厂商的推动,LDPC编码的支持者(引发高通和主要竞争者的是低密度奇偶校验码(LDPC))有一个强有力的案例。一个版本的LDPC已经被Wi-Fi(IEEE 802.11)用于数据通道,其特性和编码强度已经为大数据包所熟知。

The 5G Roadmap (Source: 3GPP)5G路线图(来源:3GPP)

While coding techniques is a very specialized topic, seemingly deep in the details of the standard, they are critical to the robustness and performance of 5G. But, a protracted debate on these details could have held up the standards process for months, or even years, if not resolved. Perhaps, at some point, issues of national and corporate pride could have stalled the process.虽然编码技术是一个非常专业的主题,看似很深入的标准细节,但它们对5G的稳健性和性能至关重要。但是,这些细节的延长解码可以在标准过程中持续数月,或者或许,在某种程度上,国家和企业自豪感问题可能会阻碍这一进程。

Despite these issues, the representatives of the various camps came to a decision in committee that a reworked version of polar codes was acceptable for the control channel, as its strength is in smaller packet sizes the polar camp lost the fight for the data channel to the well-known and effective LDPC coding scheme, which was better for the longer, variable-length data packets. That wasn't the end of the subcommittee's work, as even within the coding schemes, there are various flavors of each encoding scheme. For the record, the final version of polar coding is the cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided variant and the LDPC is the multi-edge variant.尽管存在这些问题,各个阵营的代表在委员会中做出决定,对于控制通道,极地代码的重新设计版本是可接受的,因为它的强度是较小的数据包大小,极地阵营失去了对数据通道的争夺。这不是小组委员会工作的结束,因为在编码方案中,每种编码方案都有各种风格。例如,众所周知且有效的LDPC编码方案,这种方案越长越好。记录,极坐标编码的最终版本是循环冗余校验(CRC)辅助变体,LDPC是多边变体。

In the end, the 3GPP committee delivered a complex but comprehensive standard that is designed to last a decade or more and fulfills its mission of a new high-performance, global standard for the next generation of wireless devices. The committee process can become a bottleneck in completing a new standard; however, if done right, it is also crucible, when the alternatives are fairly evaluated and the best technical solutions chosen.最终可以组织提交tee流程,3GPP委员会提供了一个复杂但全面的标准,旨在持续十年或更长时间,并履行其为下一代无线设备制定新的高性能全球标准的使命。然而,如果做得对,它也是坩埚,当替代品得到公平评估并选择最佳技术解决方案时。

· 2019-05-22 21:09  本新闻来源自:EETIMES,版权归原创方所有

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